Tumbuhkan Wirausahawan Muda, IPB Bina 30 UKM

13 07 2012

JAKARTA – Sesuai Surat Keputusan Bersama (SKB) tiga Menteri, yakni Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Mendikbud), Menteri Riset dan Teknologi (Menristek), dan Menteri Koperasi dan UKM (Menkop) terkait gerakan menumbuhkan wirausahawan muda di Indonesia, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) membina 30 UKM di wilayah Jawa Barat. Setelah melalui tahapan seleksi, dari 108 UKM yang terdaftar terpilih 30 UKM yang akan mendapatkan binaan melalui Program Inkubator Bisnis Perguruan Tinggi. Program ini terlaksana melalui Pusat Inkubator Bisnis dan Pengembangan Kewirausahaan (IncuBie), Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM) IPB.

“Sebelumnya, program pengembangan UMKM telah menyeleksi lebih dari 100 tenant dari Ciamis, Sumedang, Purwakarta, Tasikmalaya, Bogor, Bekasi, Sukabumi, dan Cianjur. Akhirnya terpilih 30 tenant UKM dari Bogor, Sukabumi, Tasikmalaya, Cianjur, dan Bekasi,” ujar Koordinator Divisi Inkubator Bisnis Incubie, Rokhani Hasbullah, seperti dikutip dari siaran pers yang diterima Okezone, Selasa (10/7/2012).

Menurut Rokhani, lima tenant akan melakukan kegiatan usahanya di Gedung Inkubator IPB sedangkan 25 tenant lainya di rumah produksinya masing-masing. “Output yang diharapkan adalah usaha mereka dapat berkembang dari kecil menjadi menengah. Dari menengah menjadi industri, serta tersusun 10business plan,” ujarnya menjelaskan.

Sementara itu, Kabid Teknik Sarana Dinas UMKM Jawa Barat Yaya Sunarya mengatakan, tenant-tenant yang berhasil lolos dan mendapatkan binaan dari IPB ini bisa menjadi motor penggerak kewirausahaan atau mengkoperasikan masyarakat dengan pendekatan komoditi. “Ke depan, setelah mendapatkan binaan dari IPB, mereka juga bisa membina masyarakat (UKM-UKM) sekitarnya untuk bisa maju dan berkembang. Sehingga makin banyak UKM-UKM sukses yang muncul,” tutur Yaya.(mrg)(rhs)

Sumber: Margaret Puspitarini, OkeZone-http://kampus.okezone.com/read/2012/07/10/373/661304/tumbuhkan-wirausahawan-muda-ipb-bina-30-ukm





Histomorphology of the hamster cheek pouch

7 12 2010

N. G. GHOSHAL & H. S. BAL

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University of Science and

Technology, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA

Sumber: Laboratory Animals (1990) 24, 228-233

Summary

Histomorphology of the cheek pouch was studied in 14 hamsters by light llnd transmission electron microscopy. The cheek pouch wall was devoid of any lymphatic tissue and dense subepithelial tissue (i.e. the lamina propria) would render lymph drainage almost impossible and might constitute impermeable morphological barrier for non-recognition of transplants evoking a host immune response. Because in the literature it was reported that there is absence of any arteriovenous anastomoses on the pouch wall, and interruption of arterial supply failed to alter the growth rate of tissue grafts, we speculated that epidermal growth factors present in the saliva could playa role in maintaining the growth of tissue transplants.

Keywords: Hamster; Cheek pouch; Histomorphology; Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; Lamina propria

Fig. 1. Section of a hamster cheek pouch. (H&E stain; x 60). A, Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; B, subepithelial connective tissue (lamina propria); C, tunica muscularis (skeletal muscle); D. adventitial connective tissue.

Fig. 2. Section of keratinized epithelium of a hamster cheek pouch showing keratin filaments in various profiles and microspaces between them (x 47 300). D. Desmosomes showing intercellular attachment sites; G, granules.

Fig. 3. Section of stratum corneum (e), and stratum granulosum of a bamster cheek pouch. Cleavage lines or spaces (5) appear in the stratum corneum, and granular structures (0) appear in the stratum granulosum (x 275(0).

Fig. 4. Section of stratum spinosum of a hamster cheek pouch. Cells depicting wavy plasma membranes with desmosomal junctions (D). Dark intracellular granules (0), microfilaments, membranous whorl-like structures related to dense granules, perinuclear mitochondria (m) and indented nuclear envelope are evident (x 16 940).

Fig. 5. Transmission electron micrograph of the lamina propria of the hamster cheek pouch. Surface epithelium (SE), basal lamina (BL), collagen fibres (CF), and blood capillary (BC) (x 72 000).





DJUNGARIAN HAMSTER AND/OR SIBERIAN HAMSTER: WHO IS WHO?

7 12 2010

Stephan Steinlechner

Department of Zoology, School of Veterinary Medicine, D-30559 Hannover, Germany

Colleagues keep asking me about the correct common name of Phodopus sungorus. Is it the Djungarian hamster or the Siberian hamster or the Striped hairy-footed hamster? And what about Phodopus campbelli, is it the Djungarian hamster or Campbell’s hamster, or what? In fact, there is considerable confusion also in the literature concerning the common names for two of the now recognized three main species of the genus Phodopus, namely Phodopus sungorus (Pallas, 1773) and Phodopus campbelli (Thomas, 1905). The third species, Phodopus roborovski (Satunin, 1903), the ”Desert hamster”, is rarely used as a laboratory animal and is so different in its habitus from the two other Phodopus species that it cannot be mistaken (Ross 1994). In contrast, P. sungorus and P. campbelli are looking very similar to the unexperienced eye and I have visited several labs where colleagues claimed to have a colony of P. sungorus but instead it turned out to be P. campbelli. And in publications – even from the same laboratory – one can find both common names ”Djungarian hamster” and ”Siberian hamster” for P. sungorus as well as for P. campbelli.

In the late 1960s a Chech scientist, Dr. Figala, came to the laboratory of Prof. Aschoff at the Max-Planck-Institute Andechs (Germany) on a ”von Humboldt stipend”. He brought with him two breeding pairs of Phodopus sungorus, started a colony and in collaboration with Goldau and Klaus Hoffmann made initial observations on seasonal changes in body weight, fur color and the occurrence of torpor in this dwarf hamster (Figala et al. 1968). Dr. Klaus Hoffmann soon realized the great potential of Phodopus and he deserves the merits of having introduced this hamster species as a very valuable animal model for pineal research (for a review see Steinlechner and Niklowitz 1992). Dr. Hoffmann was generous enough to give hamsters away to colleagues and by 1980 there were many laboratories all over the world working with Phodopus from Hoffmann’s stock or other sources.

At the time Klaus Hoffmann started his work Phodopus sungorus was considered to exist in two different geographical races: the nominate form of Phodopus sungorus sungorus, a north-western subspecies which turns white in winter, and Phodopus sungorus campbelli in the south-east of the distribution range which does not change its fur color in winter (Argyropulo 1933, Veselovski and Grundova 1964, Flint 1966). The generic name Phodopus was introduced by Miller (1910) and is derived from phodos, the genitive case of the Greek phos, meaning blister, and the Greek pous, meaning foot. It refers to the large coalesced pad on the plantar surface of each foot (Ross, 1994, 1995). The species name given by Pallas (1773) refers to the region ”Sungaria” (different spellings exist: Dsungaria or Djungaria or Zungaria, see map), south of the Altai mountains. The literal translation of the nominate form therefore is: ”the blister-footed (D)Sungarian (hamster)”. Since Hoffmann clearly worked with the nominate form, he consequently called it (as did most others before him, e.g.Veselovski and Grundova 1964, Flint 1966) the Djungarian hamster. The alternative name existing in the (English) literature at that time was the ”Hairyfooted hamster” (Ellerman and Morrison-Scott, 1951). Never (at least to my knowledge) was it called the ”Siberian hamster”. The other subspecies P. sungorus campbelli was named in honour of W.C. Campbell, who collected the type specimen in Inner Mongolia in 1902 (Ross 1995).

Already back in 1967 Vorontsov et al. reported…

sumber: Reprinted from European Pineal Society NEWS, 1998, number 38 (April): 7-11





Hamsters

15 09 2010

Hamsters are small, virtually tailless, velvet-furred rodents with enormous cheek pouches. They originated in the Middle East and southeastern Europe. The most common and popular, both as pets and laboratory animals, is the golden or Syrian hamster. Color and hair-type varieties of the golden hamster include cinnamon, cream, white, and “teddy bear” (the long-haired variety). Most of the hamsters sold as pets or used in research are the descendants of 3 littermates domesticated in 1930.

The cheek pouches are a relatively unique anatomic feature of hamsters. They are actually a cavernous outpouching of the oral (mouth) cavity on both sides, extending alongside the head and neck to the shoulders. These pouches are used to store food and allow the hamster to transport food from where it is gathered to the hamster’s den or nest The food is then eaten later, at the hamster’s leisure. Hamster owners not familiar with these cheek pouches often panic when seeing them fully distended for the first time, thinking they represent tumors or abscesses.

Another relatively unique anatomic feature of hamsters is the paired glands in the skin over the flanks. These appear as dark spots within the hair coat and are much more obvious in males than females. These glands are used to mark a hamster’s territory and also have a role in sexual behavior.

Hamsters are very popular pets today because of their availability, affordability, small size, cuddly appearance, often docile temperament and relatively clean habits. They are not very long-lived, which can be disconcerting to owners (especially children). Many parents, however, believe that having their children experience the relatively short period of companionship and subsequent death is a meaningful way to expose children to the “ups and downs” of life. For many years hamsters have been used in biomedical research laboratories. Consequently, their medical problems have been traditionally approached on a group basis, rather than on an individual basis. As a result, very little practical information exists on the medical care of individual hamsters. We will, however, attempt to provide you with the information you need to give your hamster the best care, including information to help you recognize common hamster health problems and the symptoms of the most common types of hamster diseases.

Hamster Vital Statistics

  • Scientific name: Mesocricetus auratus
  • Potential life span: 2-3 years
  • Adult body weight: 100-150 grams (Adult females are slightly larger than adult males)
  • Desirable environmental temperature range: 65-75 F
  • Desirable relative humidity range: 30-70%
  • Ages for first breeding: male: 10-14 weeks; female reproduction: 6-10 weeks
  • Length of estrous (heat) cycle: 94 hours
  • Gestation (pregnancy) period: 15 1/2-16 days
  • Average litter size: 5-10 young
  • Age at weaning: 3 weeks

Human Allergies to Hamster Dander: Certain people are allergic to the hair and/or dander of hamsters. People working with hamsters in laboratory situations are more likely to develop such allergies because of their continual association with them. Signs include itchy eyes, sneezing, runny nose, persistent cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, a skin rash, and anaphylactic shock (a true medical emergency). Owners of pet hamsters may also be susceptible, and a medical doctor should be consulted about suspected allergy problems if a hamster is kept as a pet in the household. Hamster owners with such a suspected allergy may want to consult an allergist.

Sumber: http://www.animalhospitals-usa.com





Hamster Reproduction

15 09 2010

Breeding Considerations: The sex of adult hamsters is easy to determine. Males have very large, prominent testicles. In fact, owners unaccustomed to seeing them are often astonished at these anatomic peculiarities.

Male golden hamsters should be first bred when they are 14 weeks old. Females should be first bred when they are 10 weeks old. As the time of copulation approaches, thin, stringy, cobweb-like mucus exits the female’s vulva. The female is then placed into the male’s cage about one hour before dark The pair must then be carefully observed for mating activity and/or fighting, Females can be very aggressive to males in this situation and can harm them. The male should be removed at once if there is fighting. Because fighting is so likely, aggressive males are best hand-mated. In these situations, they are better able to defend themselves and “hold their ground.” The male should be removed after mating.

Pregnancy lasts only 15 1/2-16 days. Before delivery, the female becomes restless and usually discharges a small amount of blood from her vulva. Litters usually range from 5 to 10 pups. The ups are born hairless, with ears and eyes closed. They do, however, have their front teeth (the incisors) at birth.

Female hamsters with young must be provided with abundant nesting and bedding materials, and plenty of food and water. They must not be disturbed in any way. The young should not be touched or handled until they are at least 7 days old, the nest should not be disturbed, and the cage should not be cleaned during this period. Failure to heed these cautions (especially with females nursing their first litters) most often results in cannibalism of the young. Observant owners may note an interesting maternal rearing activity, especially if the female with young is excited or disturbed. She will stuff pups into her cheek pouches and deposit them into the nest a short time later when she believes the danger has passed. Occasionally, pups suffocate as a result of this activity, especially during lengthy periods of disturbance.

Young hamsters usually begin eating solid food at 10 days of age but are usually weaned at about 3 weeks of age. Solid, pelleted food must be soaked to soften it and be placed on or near floor level of the enclosure for easy access by the weanlings. As mentioned above, sipper tubes must be positioned low enough so that the smallest pups can reach them. Some pups will not be strong enough to extract water from sipper tubes, so owners must be vigilant for this potential problem and provide an alternative water source for them.

Sumber: http://www.animalhospitals-usa.com





Hamster Care

15 09 2010

Hamster Handling and Restraint: Hamsters handled frequently from a very young age usually remain docile and rarely bite. Those with docile temperaments and a history of not biting can simply be picked up by using one or both hands, and then held in both hands or in one hand held against the body. Many hamsters develop untrustworthy personalities and begin to bite because they have been handled roughly or suddenly disturbed or awakened. Hamsters whose personalities are not well known must always be approached cautiously. A glove or small towel can be used to pick up these hamsters, or the animals can be encouraged to crawl into a small container, which is then removed from their enclosure. Unknown hamsters and those known to bite can also be picked up and restrained by grasping a large amount of skin behind the head. As much skin as possible should be grasped between the thumb and index and middle fingers because their skin is so very loose. In fact, hamsters can literally turn nearly all the way around within their skins and bite a handler if this caution is not heeded!

  1. Form a cup with hands and place it over the hamster. Gently press your palms against the animal as you pick it up.
  2. Grasp the loose fold of skin behind the neck with your thumb and index finger. Cup your other hand under the animal’s rump and grasp the hind legs between your thumb and index finger. Carry the hamster in the same position in which you picked him up.
  3. For injecting the animal in the midsection, merely stretch it out.

Housing: Proper housing is a major factor in maintaining healthy hamsters. The psychosocial well being of the pets must be a primary consideration. Hamsters can be housed within enclosures made of wire, stainless steel, durable plastic or glass. The last 3 materials are preferred because they resist corrosion. Wood and similar materials should not be used to construct enclosures because they are difficult to clean and cannot withstand the destructive gnawing of rodents. Many pet stores sell durable colored plastic enclosures that include attached horizontal and vertical tubes through which the hamster can crawl for exercise. These are suitable enclosures for hamsters.

The enclosure must be built so the hamsters cannot escape. This is an especially important consideration because hamsters are proficient “escape artists”. In fact, once free of their enclosure, they are very difficult to find and rarely return to it. A hamster free to roam the house is a real liability because it will chew and gnaw on electrical and telephone cords, and household furnishings. The enclosure must also be free of sharp edges and other potential hazards. It must be roomy enough to allow normal activities and breeding, if the latter is desired. One reference recommends at least 20 square inches of floor area per hamster, and a cage height of at least 6 inches. Hamsters seem to do best when housed in enclosures with solid floors, relatively deep bedding, and abundant nesting material. The enclosure should be easy to clean, well lighted, and adequately ventilated (see Vital Statistics for preferred temperature and relative humidity ranges). Bedding must be clean, nontoxic, absorbent, relatively dust-free and easy to replace. Shredded paper, wood shavings, and processed corn cob are preferred bedding materials. Cotton or shredded tissue paper (Kleenex) is suitable nesting material.

Hamsters are primarily nocturnal (night-active), though they may exhibit relatively short periods of activity throughout the day. During their active period, hamsters eat and exercise. Hamsters seem to especially enjoy exercise wheels and other activities. The plastic enclosures equipped with horizontal and vertical tube-tunnels mentioned above are highly recommended for this reason. Hamsters seem to really enjoy running through them. They also enjoy tin cans opened at both ends and boxes with multiple openings through which they can crawl. Pet hamsters are usually housed singly. Sexually mature females must not be housed together because of their inevitable aggressiveness toward each other. Breeding females are larger than males and tend to be aggressive toward them. For this reason, males must be removed from the enclosure after breeding has been completed.

Hygiene: The frequency with which the enclosure is cleaned depends on its design, the materials out of which it is made, and the number of hamsters within. As a general rule of thumb, the enclosure and all cage “furniture” should be cleaned and disinfected once weekly. The food and water containers should be cleaned and disinfected once daily. More than one set of containers should be maintained, and the soiled set should be washed in a dishwasher, if possible. Vigorous scrubbing of the enclosure and furniture with hot water and soap and a thorough rinse should be followed by use of a disinfectant (Roccal D: Winthrop).

Food and Water: Good quality food and fresh, clean water must be readily available at all times. The exact nutritional requirements of the hamster are not known. In the wild, they are omnivorous, feeding on plants, seeds, fruits and insects. Pet hamsters are best fed commercial rat or mouse diets containing at least 16% crude protein. These foods are usually available as dry blocks or pellets. These commercial diets can be supplemented with small amounts of dry, sugar-free breakfast cereals, whole wheat bread, uncooked pasta, cooked chicken, tuna fish, cheese, fresh fruits and vegetables. The last 2 items must be thoroughly washed to avoid exposing pet hamsters to pesticide residues and possible bacterial contamination.

Pet stores sell prepared hamster diets available in boxes or bags. These diets contain large quantities of seeds and items rich in oils. Consequently, if improperly stored, they become rancid and lose their nutritive value. Furthermore, these oil-rich items promote obesity. These types of foods can be offered as a supplement to the commercial rat or mouse diets mentioned above. All food should be provided in heavy ceramic crocks that resist tipping. The sides of the crocks should be high enough to keep bedding and fecal material out of the food, or the crocks should be elevated slightly above the bedding. Water is most easily made available and kept free from contamination by providing it in one or more water bottles equipped with ‘sipper’ tubes. Make certain the ends of the tubes are positioned low enough to allow all residents within the enclosure (especially juvenile hamsters over 1 week old) easy access to them. Also make certain that very young hamsters are strong enough to obtain water from these sipper tubes.

Sumber: http://www.animalhospitals-usa.com





Hamster Diseases/Parasitic

15 09 2010

Demodectic mange: A common external parasite problem of hamsters, is caused by mites that reside within the hair follicles and certain glands of the skin. The mites cause dry, scaly skin and significant hair loss, especially over the back. This disease is rarely a problem by itself and is frequently associated with long-standing, debilitating diseases, such as those involving the kidneys. Hamsters exhibiting hair loss should be examined by a veterinarian as soon as possible. The doctor will do a skin scraping and examine it under the microscope. The presence of mites in the scraping confirms the diagnosis. This disease can be treated, but the patient may have an underlying problem for which there is no practical treatment or cure.

Intestinal Parasites: Hamsters frequently harbor tapeworms within their small intestines. Heavy infections may cause weight loss. Lighter infections usually go undetected unless pieces of the worms pass Out of the hamster’s anus or appear in the feces. People can become infected with the same organism. Tapeworms can be transmitted to uninfected hamsters (or people) when feces harboring tapeworm eggs are inadvertently eaten. This underscores the importance of restricting access to hamsters and their enclosures by very young children. All such encounters should be carefully monitored. Hamster owners suspicious of this parasite problem should submit a fecal sample to a veterinarian for analysis. The presence of tapeworm eggs in the sample (noted microscopically) confirms the diagnosis. Treatment can be instituted by the veterinarian.

Pinworms are a less common intestinal parasitism of hamsters. These extremely tiny worms reside within the large intestines and usually cause no signs at all. Pinworm infections can be diagnosed by a veterinarian by microscopic examination of the feces. Pinworm eggs passing from the anus of the hamster sometimes cause intense itching in this area. A veterinarian may be able to detect the presence of pinworm eggs by pressing cellophane tape to this area and examining it under the microscope. Pinworms of hamsters do not cause disease in people.

Sumber: http://www.animalhospitals-usa.com